Thank you for contacting Rank Math and sorry for the delay.
It is possible that the presence of the sub directory could be affecting the strip category option. Could you please generate a new access token so that we can help in coming up with some redirections to fix this?
Sorry for the confusion. The Remove Category Base option in WooCommerce settings removes product-category base from the product category and the Remove Base option removes the Shop/Product base which WooCommerce adds by default to all the products. You can read more about it here.
We don’t have any option to remove product category from WooCommerce products and that option is not needed. You can simply change the permalink structure of Products from /product/%product_cat%/ to /product/.